Table of Contents

  • Change the World
  • The Science of Living in Harmony with Nature

  • Emerald Eco-City offers solutions to ALL of the following:
  • Standing On The Shoulders Of Giants
  • OBJECTIVE ZERO
  • The Physical Ecocity
  • Sociological and Healthy Ecocity
  • The Environmental Ecocity
  • Emerald Eco-City Energy
  • We would love to hear from you on what we doing right and wrong. Your e-mails will be posted on this website on the appropriate page.
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    Readers Comments:

    Description: Shall we turn Poo into Plastic, or suddenly exterminate all humanity

    Key Topics In This Page

    CO2 not the only G.W. Source
    Greenhouse Gas Graph
    Melting Tundra
    Global Life Extinction
    Extinction Graph
    More Methane Hazards
    What To Do With Poo
    Plastics From Poo
    with deadly Methane Gas?

    Methane (chemical symbol CH4) is produced by the decay of organic plant-and-animal cells (etc.). Methane is roughly 87% (+/-) of the content of natural gas (so, what is true about natural gas is mostly true about methane).

    According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency : "Methane is emitted from a variety of both human-related (anthropogenic) and natural sources. Human-related activities include fossil fuel production, animal husbandry (enteric fermentation in livestock and manure management), rice cultivation, biomass burning, and waste management. These activities release significant quantities of methane to the atmosphere. It is estimated that more than half of global methane emissions are related to human-related activities. Natural sources of methane include wetlands, gas hydrates, permafrost, termites, oceans, freshwater bodies, non-wetland soils, and other sources such as wildfires."

    If a house has a natural gas leak, eventually the methane CH4 content in the house can reach the “combustion ratio.” This is 5% (20 to 1) to 15% (6.6 to 1) by volume, with the worst case being 9.53 to 1 (10.5%) by cubic volume, (which is 17.2 to 1 by weight).

    When air contains over 5% methane, the mixture can burn at deadly temperatures well-over 1,000 degrees F (3,500+ F at the flame tip).

    If a methane (natural gas) leak results in 5%-to-15% methane in a building (such as one containing livestock), a distant ignition source (like a pilot light or a small spark when a thermostat turns on an electric fan) can cause the methane / air mixture to EXPLODE VIOLENTLY, blowing the roof off of the building and knocking concrete block walls down.

    Methane gas from decaying organic matter can build up in confined spaces like farm buildings, sewers and septic tanks, causing violent explosions, or occupant asphyxiation. Building codes generally require bathrooms and sewer lines to have exterior vents to dilute methane gas build up,
    by venting it into the atmosphere (where it is a powerful global warming greenhouse gas).

    Pure methane is odorless, but as you walk down the street in old megacities like London, New York and Chicago, you can often smell vented sewer gas, which contains other noxious air pollutants that our human nose tells us to avoid (for good reasons).

    Sewer gas explosions can blow heavy manhole covers high into the air, deafen ears, and burn the skin and lungs of anyone nearby. There is a long history of sewer gas explosions around the world, since industrial-age urbanization smelly pollution concentration.

    The combustion ratio concentration of methane may spread out over long distances. Distant ignition and catastrophic flashback are very possible. Flame, or high temperature, impinging on a small portion of a methane or liquefied natural gas cylinder can cause it to rupture violently, without activating the container’s pressure relief valve.

    When methane-based (CH4) natural gas burns with the optimal combustion ratio of O2 oxygen, it emits CO2 carbon dioxide
    and H2O water vapor in a hot sky-blue-color flame.

    When a methane flame is starved for sufficient oxygen, the pure carbon that is released glows bright yellow-orange.
    This color demonstrates that large portions of lethal carbon monoxide gas (CO), and lung-and-brain-damaging soot
    particles, are being emitted.
    Oil well flare towers waste huge amounts of natural gas, and they glow bright yellow-orange.

    Iran Flare Tower Waste More Energy Than Multiple Nuclear Power Plants

    Iran flares off many times more natural gas energy than a large, more-expensive, risky nuclear power plant could produce. Iran obviously has NO economic need for nuclear technology, other than to make a bomb for their state-supported terrorism.

    The old 1800’s methane gas lights (that preceded electric lights) used burners that intentionally provided insufficient oxygen to force the bright yellow-orange light source flames. They generated a lot of carbon black soot that had to be regularly removed from the glass, or from the ceilings inside homes.

    Residential Gas Lights The Old Lamplighter
    Residential Gas Lights of the 1800s
    The Old Lamplighter

     

    Al Gore’s Tennessee home w/natural gas methane lights Oxygen-starved, 1800’s-style carbon-monoxide-emitting natural gas / methane lights were burning 24-hours a day in front of Al Gore’s hypocritical extremely-inefficient Tennessee home when he won the Oscar Academy Award for his misleading

    " An Inconvenient Truth "

    movie about Global Warming, which he said is caused by man-made CO2 emissions.

    Al Gore has been preaching energy efficiency and CO2 reduction for more than three decades. BUT, the Gore home is among the least-efficient high-CO2-emitting residential sources of global warming in America. That does NOT mean that man-made climate change is a political hoax. It just proves beyond any shadow of a doubt that Al Gore Is A Two-Faced Hypocrite, who has no clue about what to do.

    Al’s home has inefficiently-located indiscriminate windows on all sides. It has a dark roof with no radiant barrier in the hot Tennessee summer sun, which significantly increases his electric bill unnecessarily. The Gore’s fireplace emits a large volume of harmful soot and global warming CO2. His black-asphalt driveway / parking area contributes to the local urban heat island. His irrigation system wastefully sprays water into the hot summer air. His sod contributes to energy-and-water waste, ground-water pollution, and uses petroleum-based fertilizer.

    In his award-winning (obsolete) PowerPoint slide presentation movie, Gore calls on people to conserve energy and to reduce CO2 emissions by using less electricity at home. BUT, Gore pays 20 times more for electricity and gas than an average American homeowner does! Is this the role-model example that his political patrons should be enthusiastically following? USA has many greedy fossil-fuel profiteers who do not emit as much CO2 in their homes and personal travels as Al Gore does.

    In 2006, U.S. DOE said that an average American home used 10,656 kWh/year. Gore’s extremely-inefficient home used 221,000 kWh. AFTER the release of “An Inconvenient Truth” Gore’s hypocritical electricity consumption INCREASED from 1,620 kWh per month in 2005, to 1,840 in 2006. Is this the leader who will save us from our global warming suicide?

    Gore’s natural gas (methane) utility bill AVERAGED $1,080 per month in the sunny south, which has a MILD climate. His combined electric-plus-gas bills for 2006 were nearly $30,000. He is a disingenuous world leader of: “Do what I say, NOT what I do.”

    Since the 1973 OPEC Oil embargoes the price of petroleum, coal, natural gas and electricity has skyrocketed. Gasoline pump price went from $.20 per gallon to $4. The BTU equivalent of all energy sources has undergone a similar price increases.

    Since 1973, the purchasing power of the U.S. Dollar has fallen dramatically, and continues to do so at an accelerating pace to this day, with our unprecedented Bush / Obama deficit spending, and diluting the dollar by printing tons of worthless paper.

    Consider for a moment the cost of operating Al Gore’s grossly-inefficient Tennessee house at $30,000 per year for electricity and natural gas (methane). IF the purchasing power of the dollar stops falling (not likely), and the price of energy stops rising (also not likely), 30 years times $30,000 per year will be $900,000, measured in today’s U.S. dollars.

    You can buy a nice Tennessee home for what Al Gore is flushing down the toilet with his global warming gross inefficiency. If you factor in probable future inflation, the rapidly-declining value of the U.S. dollar, and the galloping price of electricity and natural gas, Al Gore’s house could uselessly waste more like $5-to-$20 MILLION dollars of totally-avoidable utility bills over the next 30 years. Not only is his hypocrisy bad for Earth’s environment, it is also very-bad for Al Gore’s tarnished reputation, political effectiveness, AND HIS OWN NET WORTH.

    President Carter’s U.S. Department Of Energy showed HOW to eliminate most of Al Gore’s utility bills. In 1978, Carter provided significant tax incentives to do it. In 1979, we formed Zero Energy Design , and demonstrated our 5,000 sq.ft., cost-effective, widely-recognized, near-zero-energy home. Al Gore ignores well-documented 30-year-old energy-conservation solid science.

    For the money that Al Gore has been flushing down his utility-bill toilet, he too COULD have been living in a Zero Energy Design home, instead of just hypocritically politicizing Global Warming. Gore COULD have been doing something to demonstrate HOW to reduce Gore-made climate change. BUT, Al has REFUSED TO ACCEPT 30-year-old DOE and ZED PROVEN solutions to anthropomorphic climate change, AND continues to do so to this very day! Al Gore purchase a new California coastal home in 2010. This grossly-inefficient $9 million mansion has six fireplaces! Zero emissions green homes have NO FIREPLACES.

    Changing a few light bulbs is far too little, far too late. IF Al Gore really believed what he was preaching decades ago, he would have done something about it long ago. But, EVEN AL GORE OBVIOUSLY DOES NOT BELIEVE AL GORE!  (Chuckle)

    Al Gore's Tennessee is the heart of American coal country and devastating government-subsidized
    coal-mining ecological-and-human-rights catastrophes
    in American history.

    Mountain top coal removal Mountain top coal removal 2

    Mountain top removal involves clear cutting hardwood forests, blasting, dumping waste in streams, flooding, contaminating scarce drinking water, airborne dust and debris, large methane emissions, and the Buffalo Creek disaster which KILLED over 100 and left 1,000’s homeless. Should taxpayers keep subsidizing the use of COAL IN ANY WAY ?

    For most of Al Gore’s life, most of the electricity that he has been inefficiently wasting has come from coal, which is one of the very-worst carbon-dioxide and air-pollution emitters in the world. Black coal soot accelerates ice cap melting.

    A near-zero-energy Al Gore home would have nearly eliminated the terrible damage to Earth’s delicate atmosphere that the Gore family is responsible for. A Tennessee Zero Energy Design home could have set an admirable example that many might have proudly followed. Improved energy-and-economic solutions for his home state of Tennessee, COULD HAVE GIVEN AL GORE THE POLITICAL CREDIBILITY AND ELECTORAL VOTES TO BECOME THE U.S. PRESIDENT in 2001.

    By ignoring his own energy conservation advice, Al Gore has forever been consistently sending a clear message that wasting energy is not a bad thing to do (up until he won his hypocritical Oscar in 2006 and the REAL TRUTH about his own hypocrisy was widely publicized).

    After the people in Al’s home state did not even vote for him in his 2000 presidential campaign, he returned to giving his old inaccurate speeches about CO2 global warming, to raise some revenue. When “An Inconvenient Truth” won the Academy Award in 2006, Gore still did NOT have a clue about what HE should personally do to reduce global warming, OR demonstrate any interest at all in U.S. DOE advice, or Zero Energy Design.

    Does Al Gore REALLY understand the source of Global Warming?

    Does he practice what he preaches? ABSOLUTELY NOT !

    Did he deserve a Nobel Prize for his outrageous CO2 hypocrisy?

    Should a man who can NOT run his own life, or please his own state, tell YOU what to do, or HOW to do it?

    Is Al Gore’s bad example going to lead the world out of our climate change suicide?
    Or, will it fuel the opposition and therefore slow the critical Zero Emission changes that we need so very much?

    Some of what Al Gore SAYS has significant value, but should HE be the worldwide spokesman for Future Energy
    and Climate Change Solutions?
    ABSOLUTELY NOT!

    We desperately need a large-scale prototype about precisely HOW to solve our many man-made suicidal crises:
    Emerald Eco-City.

    Al may not be as INHERENTLY EVIL as Rush Limbaugh and Senator Jim Inhofe, BUT Al Gore continues to make himself just as easy of a dishonest target for the opposition.

    Gore’s hypocrisy, and the Climategate scandal, draw attention to the obvious fact that there are dishonest, opportunistic, self-serving exaggerators on BOTH sides of most controversial political issues. Emerald Eco-City seeks absolute Scientific TRUTH Proof.

    The time for disingenuous political speeches is over. The time to act well is NOW!
    Nothing discredits a shameless liar faster than absolute proof of the Scientific TRUTH.
    Zero Energy Design and the U.S. DOE demonstrated the basics on the residential scale in 1979.
    Emerald Eco-City is merely scaling up, integrating, and optimizing modern technology.

    Our world does need a powerful example of how to radically reverse the unsustainable suicidal path that we are now on. AL GORE IS NO SUCH EXAMPLE. He is a distraction, and a fat target for the opposition of the need for radical reinvention of all megacities worldwide. We CAN do much better. We must enlighten the world about HOW, now.

    All humans are flawed to some degree, especially naïve mistakes made in their youth. When I was in my 20’s, I confess that I owned a gas-guzzling V8. I lived in a conventional house made of wood, with a dark roof, and a fireplace. I had power boats, a private airplane, and I flew in fuel-guzzling commercial jet airplanes.

    My 1979 near-zero-energy home was a major turning point for me in learning “HOW” to live in harmony with Nature, but there is STILL much more that all of us can do better. Emerald Eco-City is our No Compromise, “Do It Right”, “Why not the very best?” solution demonstration.

    Clearly, we can NOT look to a very-flawed human like Al Gore to lead us into the “Zero Emissions, Never Burn Anything” future, which he clearly does NOT believe, demonstrate, or even begin to understand.

    That is precisely why Zero Energy Design is now investing so very much in our Emerald Eco-City prototype community of tomorrow proposal, which will require the largest collaborative design effort in human history. We cannot tolerate ANY dishonest exaggerators, or non-believers in their own message. The time has finally come when we must DEMONSTRATE the PROOF of our very-best environmental knowledge. Anything less is an unsustainable deadly distraction.

    Gore has totally compromised his 2006 CO2-emissions message. For reasons of profit and political compromise, Al has finally yielded to T. Boone Pickens (natural gas billionaire). Al Gore is now preaching that we should convert to natural gas (methane) powered vehicles.

    Does Al Gore have the slightest simpleton’s sense about ZERO Emissions – Never Burn Anything? ABSOLUTELY NOT!

    Gore piously preached that carbon dioxide is the problem, but his proposed future-growth methane-based natural-gas proposal makes CO2 much worse! The fractional reduction in net CO2 emissions will have very little benefit to a world where we are already far past the CO2 tipping point of 350 ppm, AND CO2 emissions are now increasing at .6% per year. IF the number of automobiles doubles worldwide (as predicted in the next few years due to China, India, etc.), AND all new vehicles are powered by Al Gore’s recommended natural gas (which they will not be), then CO2 emissions will still be substantially higher than they are today – Far beyond the current greenhouse gas tipping point (which is now RISING .6% per year).

    Is that what we really should do Mr. Nobel Prize Laureate?

    Fractional reduction in per-capita CO2 emissions are meaningless when Earth's population doubles. Earth went from 2.5 billion in 1950 to 6.8 billion in 2010. If we only wanted CO2 to remain at 1950 levels, per-capita CO2 emissions would have to be immediately reduced to only 36% of what they were in 1950. Have your emissions already been REDUCED that much, OR has your dirty energy consumption increased? Do you buy fossil fuel electricity, or drive a fossil fuel car?

    Do you have higher energy bills today, or do you understand 30-year-old Zero Energy Design?
    Very few humans do. Those who do not are THE SOURCE OF OUR SUICIDAL PRESENT PATH.

    Al Gore lives in an energy-disaster wooden house, embarrassingly-wasting millions of dollars in avoidable utility bills. He travels extensively from one speech to another in fleets of gas-guzzling limos and SUV’s. He spends a lot of time in petroleum-devouring CO2-belching jet airplanes (instead of efficiently telecommuting with modern Internet technology that HE encouraged). You do remember that Al laughingly claimed to have “invented the Internet” in 1993 don’t you? (Snicker)

    Al Gore’s book “Our Choice” is ONLY available printed on dead trees. To maximize hardcopy book revenue generation, he REFUSED to make it available in a popular eBook format to reduce the killing of trees to make paper. Even if the paper is recycled, the original paper source was still trees, and it takes expensive imported petroleum and manual labor to ship Al Gore’s books – Obsolete Insincere Baby Boomer Book Mentality (in our electronic world that SHOULD BE PAPERLESS).

    And as his Crowning Achievement about what to do with money made from his extreme “greenwash” duplicity, Al struts around on the Hurricane Marina (Smithville, Tennessee) dock in front of his 2008 110-foot-long “Bio-Solar One” (B.S. #1) biofuel-burning huge houseboat, which emits large volumes of CO2 and cancer-causing “aldehydes” from two large conventional diesel engines. His biodiesel fuel is produced from scarce food crops, agricultural equipment, labor, land and water – contributing to the worldwide starvation of a billion people.

    Does our “ECOtistical” Nobel laureate fancy himself “Noah” – Ready to ride out the sea level rise
    that HE is contributing to so greatly?  BURN BABY BURN!

    Al Gore’s Bio-Solar ONE Al Gore’s Bio-Solar One 2

    But what about Al Gore’s 2006 “An Inconvenient Truth” Academy-Award-winning movie and book that precipitated his
    (highly-controversial) Nobel Peace Prize award?

    His movie contains many partial truths, but some outright technical flaws. The picture of Hurricane Katrina coming out of smoke stacks is rotating backwards. The foundational argument that CO2 is the cause of Global Warming is scientifically incomplete.

    From the National Center for Policy Analysis : "Most of the material in the movie is not new.  It is largely based on a slide show Gore has given more than a thousand times to audiences around the world."

    "Gore has persistently erred in his presentation of climate science for years; unfortunately, he has NOT taken this opportunity to correct his errors."

    "The movie is filled with misstatements, half-truths and verbal sleights of hand concerning what we can and can’t say with some level of certainty regarding the causes and consequences of climate change."

    The Christian Science Monitor coined a new term to describe “An Inconvenient Truth” and films like it: “Docu-ganda.” Such films differ from honest “documentaries” in that the goal of the filmmaker is to influence rather than to present the whole scientific truth.

    One media expert argued that marketing such films as documentaries could be “dangerous if viewers take everything they are saying as the whole truth.” A second expert noted that “the danger of the advocacy documentary is that things might be being kept from you….” Michael Moore's docu-ganda is a good example of some truth mixed with a lot of bias.

    Carbon Dioxide Is NOT The Only source Of Man-Made Climate Change

    CH4 methane (natural gas) is a much-more-powerful global-warming greenhouse gas than CO2. Methane is lighter than air. It rises to the troposphere, where it traps heat from the sun, and reflects heat radiated upward from the Earth back down. An increase in atmospheric methane increases Earth’s temperature worldwide.

    The scientific “Global Warming Potential” (GWP) of methane is the worst when it is first emitted. Over a hundred years, CH4 slowly decays in sunlight, forming global warming CO2 and H2O water vapor, PLUS smaller amounts of potentially-lethal carbon monoxide (CO), methanol (CH3OH), formaldehyde (HCHO), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO).

    Today’s best scientific studies suggest that if we AVERAGE the declining impact of methane emissions over 100 years, its GWP IS 25 TIMES GREATER THAN AN EQUIVALENT VOLUME OF CARBON DIOXIDE. The CO2 then remains in our delicate atmosphere an additional 100 years, causing a total of 200 years of prolonged global warming LONG AFTER the methane is emitted.

    If methane emissions are averaged over only the first 20 years after their release into the atmosphere, the GWP IS75 TIMES GREATER than the same volume of CO2.

    In this case, BURNING METHANE SO THAT IT EMITS CO2 INSTEAD OF CH4 into our air is BETTER than merely allowing methane from any source to escape into the atmosphere in its raw CH4 form. CO2 emissions are BAD, but they are 75 TIMES LESS BAD than CH4 methane is for the first 20 years, and 25 TIMES LESS BAD FOR 100 YEARS. Burning methane hastens the slow decay of CH4 into less damaging CO2. Burning methane is thus the lesser of two serious climate-change evils. We a huge oil-and-gas well leak like the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon spews huge volumes of unburned natural gas into the atmosphere, it has a sizable impact on global warming man-made climate change for 200 years.

    At any rate, when Al Gore won a Nobel Prize for saying that CO2 emissions are causing global warming, he FAILED to correctly state that growing methane emissions are 75 TIMES WORSE. The methane GWP lasts for 200 years, whereas CO2 GWP lasts only 100 years. Was “An Inconvenient Truth” advocacy documentary the whole scientific truth? ABSOLUTELY NOT!

    A Graph of Rapid increase in Greenhouse Gases over Time

    A Graph of Rapid increase in Greenhouse Gases

     

    The emission of harmful greenhouse gases like CO2 carbon dioxide, CH4 methane and nitrogen oxides (NxOx) is DIRECTLY RELATED TO EXPONENTIAL POPULATION GROWTH.

    In 150 years, man has caused atmospheric CO2 to increase to an alarming 42%, pushing it well beyond the 350 ppm tipping point of cataclysmic climate change.

    If CO2 in the air we breathe reaches only 1%, all humans will immediately DIE. Many will suffer serious respiratory problems as CO2 and air pollution continue to rise.

    If CO2 is “alarming”, methane is a MUCH WORSE growing potential problem. Atmospheric CH4 has risen a frightening 152% in the same 150 years, due to organic decay, biomass rotting, plants-and-animals dying, oil-and-natural-gas production, coal extraction, landfills, sewage, domestic livestock (especially cattle), and land use (especially the way most rice is grown).


    In absolute terms, atmospheric methane is much less than CO2, but the GWP of CH4 methane per unit of volume is many times greater, AND CH4 is increasing much faster than CO2. The full potential impact of of continued increase of methane at an ever-increasing rate has NOT been fully factored into most scientific climate change models.

    It is POSSIBLE (but not proven) that an inaccurately-predicted actual rise in methane COULD be much-more significant than
    anything Al Gore has ever presented before about carbon dioxide.

    It apparently HAS happened before, as clearly documented in Earth’s fossil record (discussed below).

    Can Cattle Cause Worldwide Climate Change?

    According the the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, worldwide ruminant livestock like cattle produce about 80 million metric tons of methane annually, accounting for about 28% of global methane emissions from human-related activities. An individual animal emit 80-110 kgs of methane per year, but with about 1.2 billion large ruminants in the world, they are one of the largest deadly methane sources.

    Mike Huckabee (failed 2008 presidential candidate) laughed at the U.S. spending $19 million a year investigating cattle flatulence. Actually, we are spending FAR TOO LITTLE to understand what can be done to reduce this serious man-made climate change powerful greenhouse gas source.

    In 1950, Earth's population was 2.5 billion. Today it is about 7 billion. American consumption of beef has exploded - per capita, and for the entire nation. Americans eat far too much unhealthy red meat.

    Read meat significantly increases the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and brain strokes. Teaching children to eat hamburgers should be considered a felony. Bribing children with toys will be banned in Emerald Eco-City.

    America's fast food advertisers now spend $4 billion every year to warp the minds of our precious innocent children. Greedy evil purveyors of pervasive poisons reward naive immediate-gratification children with cheap Chinese (sometimes harmful) happy meal toys (that wind up in landfills) to encourage kids to eat large quantities of high-profit unhealthy food. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_Food_Nation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersize_me

    Cattle are allergic to corn. It is NOT a natural food source for them. Industrialized feedlot beef generate far more methane than much-healthier free-roaming grass-fed organic animals. We should ban feeding corn to cattle, and take meaningful significantly steps to reduce consumption of beef. Consumers would be healthier, and our global environment would be better off if we did.

    $19 million to investigate flatulence is trivial compared to the $4 billion that profiteers spend each year to shorten the life span of our children, and to accelerate the destruction of our own habitat. We need to do much more to STOP America's gluttonous hamburger-mentality insanity. How much beef do you and your family eat each year? Are your seat covers made of leather?

    Drilling For Oil and Natural Gas

    When exploratory wells search for crude oil / petroleum, they often find it mixed with large reservoirs of natural gas. Blowouts can emit huge quantities of high-pressure methane greenhouse gas into Earth's delicate troposphere, which influences man-made climate change for 200 years. This greenhouse gas is added to the global warming effect that is being caused by burning coal, gasoline, diesel fuel (trucks, trains, ships and airplanes), cutting down 50,000-to- 100,000 acres of trees per day, livestock methane emissions, and occasional large volcano eruptions (like Iceland).

    The myopic historical approach that oil men have used when they hit natural gas is to flare it off - polluting the atmosphere. If you are going to burn it anyway, it SHOULD be burned with an efficient blue flame (not dirty yellow-orange), and the heat should then be used to generate local electricity - although it would be much better to leave oil-and-gas in the ground, and develop much-lower-cost clean, green, safe, free-fuel, zero-emissions electricity.

    The 3-month uncontrolled huge 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil-and-gas blowout generated a lot of press about the obvious oil spill, but few people considered the impact that the methane emission will have on Earth's future climate, since clear methane gas is sadly "out of sight, out of mind." When added to the already-growing .6% per year increase of man-made greenhouse gas accumulation, the BP blowout plus Iceland volcanoes, etc. may combine into a cascading catastrophe that happens much faster in the 21ST century than previous climate change computer models had predicted.

    The impact of greenhouse gas is not instantaneous. It is cumulative over time - Like Smoking - Death on the installment plan.

    Multiple types of greenhouse gases increase incrementally over time producing only slow temperature change. And then, when the last straw finally breaks the camel's back, a sudden cascade can trigger many different increases in a variety of things that influence temperature worldwide.

    When there is a small natural gas leak in a home, there is nothing that appears to be different on the outside, until it suddenly explodes violently. Unlike commercial natural gas, CH4 in the atmosphere is odorless and colorless. The percentage of methane required for a catastrophic explosion is far less than what is necessary to suffocate humans. The very last thing that billions of humans may ever see might be a deafening bright-orange ball of 1500-degree F flame. When you see it happen, you will only have a second to remember that YOU WERE WARNED MANY TIMES.

    Do you agree with the majority that we need to do nothing to mitigate the predictable methane life-extinction risk?

    Melting Arctic Tundra

    As the huge area of Arctic Tundra decays, it generates a lot of methane, which is normally trapped under frozen water. When Earth temperature rises, the Tundra melts and rapidly releases large quantities of methane, which may have been sequestered for millions of years. Methane is now bubbling up in thawing shallow lakes at rates never-before-seen by any human before:

    Methane bubbling up in thawing shallow lakes

    Arctic Tundra massive methane release into the atmosphere is NOT speculative theory. It is now well-documented hard scientific fact that is not yet fully factored into current climate change computer models. It is difficult to calculate exactly how much additional CH4 is now being released into our delicate troposphere, over what period of time, all things considered.

    Are we approaching a serious Atmospheric-Methane Tipping Point? Will sea level rise much faster than anyone thought only a few years ago? When we know for sure, it will be FAR TOO LATE TO RESPOND. No one wants to believe scientific speculation.

    They preach it is mere gloom-and-doom "sky is falling" Chicken Little partisan politics that should be ignored by all. They falsely assume that if it worked for their grandparents (when Earth's population was 1 / 3rd of what it is today), that it will continue to work forever in the future. They ignore all scientific evidence and act as if they know better than all of the experts in the field.

    They ignored the accurate Peak Oil prediction in 1956, and Global Warming in 1980. Non-learning IGNORE-ance has made things much worse today. Ignoring proven scientific facts does NOT make them go away. Lack of understanding of the Universal Laws of Nature, and the unsustainability of stupid destruction of our delicate environment, will be useless excuses after self extermination. No one will be left to say: "I told you so." When basements begin to fill with salt water in coastal megacities around the world, it will be far too late to take effective corrective action. The long-predicted catastrophe will then be irreversible. CO2 stays in the atmosphere for a century. Tropospheric CH4 methane remains for two centuries.

    The hard fact is that methane IS rapidly getting much worse (152% total increase in only 150 years – much faster than the 42% increase in CO2). But, the potential of a methane-based climate change catastrophe is mere trivia compared to our next topic:

    Earth’s Periodic MASS LIFE EXTINCTION Events

    The U.S. Grand Canyon exposes nearly 2 Billion Years of Earth’s sedimentary deposition geology history. Layer upon layer contains valuable information about Earth’s evolutionary past, which appears to be a “Punctuated Equilibrium.” The same geologic story is documented around the world with some regional variations.

    When Earth’s climate and environment are stable, the fossil record remains fairly unchanged for many sedimentary layers covering many millions of years. Periodically, a major “Mass Biological Extinction Event” occurs. Below a specific, distinct, geologic layer, there are many types of fossils that do NOT appear above the layer.

    Paleoclimatic data taken from polar-and-glacier ice core layers correlate that Earth’s mass extinctions are related to global climatic change events. One almost always causes the other. Life and death on our delicate planet depends on our climate.

    Grade school children study dinosaurs, and the theory that 65-million-years-ago it appears that one-or-two huge Earth Impacts wiped out non-avian dinosaurs around the globe. The (first) impact was at the Chicxulub crater on the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula. The meteor was 6 miles wide. It impacted Earth at perhaps 45,000 mph, creating a 106-mile-wide crater.

    There is fossil evidence that dinosaurs were declining for about 10 million years before the Earth impact.

    There is a thin geologic layer that contains the very-rare silver-white Iridium (Ir) element, in a concentration that is 2,000 greater than found in other geologic layers. Iridium is found in the same geologic layer in similar thickness around the world from Canada to New Zealand, suggesting that the Earth Impact that killed the dinosaurs was a global extinction event. Iridium has also been found in other smaller meteorites. There is one theory, based on 21st Century core samples that the 65-million-year-old Iridium-containing meteor impact was roughly 300,000 years AFTER the Chicxulub impact.

    The Iridium layer contains abundant plant life. Above this laver plants do not exist until rugged rapid-growing ferns begin to appear. The Iridium layer contains very-little charcoal, suggesting that there were NOT worldwide wildfires (as some had incorrectly speculated in the 1900's). Marine fossils of that era show no mass extinction of shallow-water amphibians, or deep water fish. This confirms that water temperature and acidity did NOT change significantly as a result of the Earth impact(s).

    Apparently, the Iridium-containing dust that was blown high into the atmosphere blocked sunlight enough to kill most land plants, which eliminated food for herbivorous dinosaurs, which in turn eliminated food for carnivorous predators. Only small mouse-like mammals were able to burrow underground and find a way to survive on subterranean food until the skies began to clear. Those rodents were apparently the 65-million-year-old ancestors of all small-and-large mammals on Earth today.

    Graph of Earth's Biological Extinction EventsGraph of Earths Biological Extinction Events

    Nearly 30% of all land-based plant-and-animal fossil genera / species were wiped out in a single Mass Extinction Event 65-million years ago. But, that was NOT the worst that is clearly documented in our recent
    geologic fossil record.

    The Great Dying (accurately dated around the world to have been 251 million years ago) was the largest mass extinction in the last half-a-billion-Earth-years. OVER HALF of all previous land-and-marine species (in lower geologic layers) do NOT occur above this geologic layer. Earth lost 90% of all plant-and-animal life that was alive at the time. Imagine
    IF Earth suddenly exterminated 90% of all life today.
    How might such a cataclysm occur?

    There are four widely-accepted theories about The Great Dying. It was most likely a combination of two of them:
    (1) An Earth Impact much larger than the one that wiped out the dinosaurs,
    (2) A supernova within 30 light years of Earth could have temporarily wiped out our ozone layer, burning everything with intense ultraviolet radiation (loss of Earth's magnetic field when the North-and-South magnetic fields flipped may have had a similar effect coincidental with extreme solar-or-cosmic radiation),
    (3) Plate tectonics / continental drift - resulting in dramatic changes in ocean currents, salinity, acidity, weather, and earthquake-related mega-volcano super-eruptions, huge emissions of greenhouse gases, global warming, deadly acid rain, and / or
    (4) A gigantic oceanic methane release, which may have caused a spectacular 1,000+ degree F transient-spike worldwide atmospheric combustion event (conceptually similar to a massive sewer gas explosion).

    Even if the atmosphere did not ignite worldwide, a huge oceanic methane greenhouse-gas release could raise Earth's temperature a deadly ten degrees over a matter of years, which would be added to the global warming effect of huge volcanic CO2 greenhouse gas emissions.

    (1) The Earth Impact is less likely in The Great Dying than the one that killed Earth's dinosaurs. There is nothing like the iridium
    layer at the boundary between Earth’s Permian / Triassic geologic layers. 90% of marine life was exterminated 251 million years ago, which did NOT happen with the Earth Impact 65 million years ago, which only exterminated land-based plants and animals.

    (2) There is geologic evidence that our ozone layer has periodically declined, but specific proof is difficult to establish.
    We have no precise record of solar-and-cosmic radiation. This does not fully explain the loss of deep-water marine life forms.

    (3) Plate tectonics is VERY-LIKELY, and well documented over billions of years. It could have triggered, or at least influenced, dramatic mass life extinction events, including The Great Dying.

    (4) A giant methane eruption is VERY-LIKELY. Paleoclimatic data show that The Great Dying began with an increase in
    atmospheric temperature of only a few degrees, but then Earth’s temperature suddenly increased dramatically.
    This possibility is not included in current climatic models, since we will not know the Methane Tipping Point until it happens.

    Burn Baby Burn Oceanic Methane Can Ignite Our Atmosphere
    The Earth Burning off it's Methane
    Oceanic Methane Ignited Our Atmosphere

    The fossil record suggests that it has happened before. It will probably happen again.
    – The only question is WHEN? – Will human activities make it happen very soon? -

    For 3 Billion years, small-and-large plants and animals have been dying and generating methane. Organic cells settle to the bottom of the oceans and continental shelves like continual white snow, where they are covered with deep sedimentary layers over billions of years.

    Bacteria have always been the dominate life form on Earth. Even today, if you add the total weight of all other plant-and-animal life forms, they would weigh less than all bacteria today. Different forms of bacteria exist in every niche that will tolerate life. There are good-and-bad forms of bacteria inside all animals and humans. The help with digestion, metabolism, the production of essential vitamins, etc. If we take antibiotics, they kill good-and-bad bacteria. After a course of antibiotics, we should take probiotics to restore the natural good flora and fauns in our gut. Most of the uncooked fresh food that humans and animals consume contains the good bacteria that we must have to survive (but highly-processed foods do not).

    It is naturally pervasive bacteria that causes CH4 methane to be slowly released from dead plant-and-animal cells. Methane is trapped in billions of thin-and-thick layers at the bottom of oceans, and shallower continental shelves. When we drill for oil, methane is OFTEN released at the same time. It is difficult to imagine how huge the total amount of stored methane now is. If even part of it was suddenly released, it would be far more than what would be necessary to raise Earth's entire atmosphere above the explosive 5% methane combustion ratio.

    Ice-like white methane hydrate-and-clathrate solids are formed in vast quantities from methane and water on the sea floor. Imagine the quantity of explosive that must have accumulated after 3 Billion years. It is far too scary to think about. In our myopic world, where critical science is ignored by the mediocre mindless masses, few scientists will even bring the subject up.

    When methane hydrates are warmed slightly, the methane boils off in gaseous CH4 form. Global warming of the ocean by only a few degrees COULD suddenly reach a point where it releases enough methane to temporarily raise the atmospheric combustion ratio above 5%. Since methane remains in the atmosphere for a hundred years, the methane could accumulate over a number of years until it reaches the critical 5% explosive level. CO2 triggers methane release, which causes global warming, which triggers more methane release, in a climate change cascade. The geologic record in Greenland suggests this happened. After The Great Dying event 251 million years ago, there is a Dead Zone in millions of years of geologic deposition.

    A single 50,000-degree F lightening bolt (which constantly happen around the world) could ignite Earth’s entire 5%-methane atmosphere without warning, and explosively raise air temperature well-above 1,000 degrees F worldwide, EASILY killing 90% of all living things on land, and raising the temperature-and-acidity of the oceans, killing 90% of marine life, as documented in Earth's geologic record 251 million years ago.

    Humans have no possible defense or plan to deal with such a precedented life-extinction event. BUT, we have clear evidence that it has probably has happened before, and therefore it will most-likely happen again. The only question is WHEN. The man-made increase in CO2 from 270 ppm to nearly 400 ppm is similar to the volcanic eruptions that triggered The Great Dying. Man-made CH4 methane emissions are accelerating our rush toward the predictable point of no return.

    This is NOT wild science fiction speculation. It is just a matter of timing. Man-made greenhouse gases are accelerating the day. No one can accurately predict when an explosive methane tipping point may be reached, but we know it has happened before.

    October 2008, Patrick Charles (former Professor at the Geological Institute of Havana) stated that “conditions are ripe for major seismic activity in Port-au-Prince. The inhabitants of the Haitian capital need to prepare themselves for an event which will inevitably occur . . . science has provided instruments that help predict these types of events and show how we have arrived at these conclusions.” His predictions were based on the fact that Port-au-Prince sits on a large fault line, part of the Enriquillo Fault Zone, which begins in Petionville and ends at Tiburon. The North American tectonic plate is moving in the opposite direction as the Caribbean plate, which creates the Caribbean island (mountain tops).

    Professor Charles correctly predicted that the tremors felt in Petionville, Delmas, Croix des Bouquets, and La Plaine in 2008 were signs of something much larger to come. He accurately predicted well in advance that an earthquake of 7.2 or more would soon devastate Haiti’s capital with catastrophic consequences.

    Just like Hubbert's 1956 very-accurate prediction of American Peak Oil in 1971, Professor Patrick Charles' Haiti earthquake prediction was widely ignored by virulently ignorant non-learning people. Ignoring the best scientific evidence places many people at great risk. The record-breaking magnitude 7 earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010, PROVED that scientific predictions of cataclysmic events can sometimes be much-more accurate than the myopic mediocre-minded majority will normally admit. Although Haiti has always been at great risk for large earthquakes, they have no building codes. Concrete buildings have no reinforcing steel. It is deadly false economy to ignore modern science.

    There have been a number of strange sudden disappearances of ships in the Bermuda Triangle, and elsewhere. We know that North-and-South America are moving westward away from Europe and Africa. We also know that the Caribbean Islands and the Florida peninsula have moved eastward, creating stress cracks and geologic fault zones in Earth's thin crust.

    Petroleum and natural gas deposits are not evenly distributed homogeneously around the earth. The Haiti earthquake did not release a large amount of methane, but in other areas, plate tectonics, subsea earthquakes, volcanoes, or an Earth impact may cause the future release of a huge methane gas bubble, as we believe has happened in the past.

    Such an event could instantly sink a large ship, with zero time to send out a radio SOS. Ships float on water. They can NOT float on a lighter-than-air methane bubble as large as half the length of the ship. This idea is scientific speculation with no absolute proof that it actually happens, BUT it is a real-world possibility that has not been fully explored yet. All we know for sure is that large ships have suddenly disappeared without warning, and no survivors to describe what happened. Scientists have simulated sudden methane-bubble ship sinking in laboratory water tanks, but a real-world demonstration is too frightening to think about. The small possibility does not prevent ships from frequenting the area.

    As you drive along the California coastline, you will see many onshore-and-offshore oil wells, which are not far from well- documented Pacific Plate "Ring of Fire" earthquake fault zones. Drilling for more oil has been curtailed for good reason, due to coastal environmental concerns. We know that there are large deposits of oil and natural gas near the fault zones.

    IF an earthquake or volcano were to split open a giant dome containing an enormous amount of methane (anywhere on Earth), it could cause our atmosphere to explode. Just like many other scientific predictions, we expect the vast majority to ignore the geologically-documented scientific methane-extinction event possibility.

    Methane has many serious difficult-to-predict worldwide issues, that the unscientific myopic masses prefer to ignore.

    Many humans obviously think that man-made climate change is NOT real. Even Al Gore and Ed Begley Jr. have refused to stop burning things that release huge amounts of greenhouse gas. Most people will not even allow their closed minds to consider the following SCIENTIFIC POSSIBILITY.

    Earth’s climate IS changing - It always has. Some accelerators now include the activities of thoughtless explosive-growth humans: burning many things and killing most of Earth’s life-giving trees that used to sequester greenhouse gases.

    Just suppose hypothetically that Earth’s temperature rises only a few degrees, but it is enough to trigger massive oceanic methane release over a period of five years. Lightning ignites the atmosphere and suddenly kills 90% of all living things, with very-little prior warning (other than the increasing methane content that we are seeing today). ALL HUMANS WOULD INSTANTLY DIE. Animals can survive in air with 5% methane, but NOT when it suddenly explodes at over 1,000 degrees F.

    Millions of years after the next methane extermination event, new species will eventually evolve. THEY will survive ONLY IF they learn to thrive in HARMONY with Nature (unlike non-learning suicidal humanity today). Nature will find a way, even if humanity does not. Evolution naturally selects those who OBEY Universal Truth.

    More Methane Hazards

    Methane is an odorless, colorless gas (or cryogenic liquid). Both the liquid and the gas form of CH4 pose a serious fire hazard when accidentally released. The cryogenic liquid form will rapidly boil to gas at standard room temperatures and pressures.

    Methane is an “asphyxiate” that presents a lethal health hazard by displacing the oxygen in the atmosphere. In confined areas where methane (or natural gas) is used-or-produced (like livestock buildings), oxygen levels MUST be monitored and maintained above 19.5%. Fresh-air ventilation system failure can be deadly in a matter of hours.

    Human response, when atmospheric oxygen level is displaced (by methane, et.al.):

    12-16% Oxygen - Breathing and pulse rate increase, muscular coordination is disturbed.
    Fingernails begin to turn blue as oxygen content of the blood falls.

    10-14% Oxygen - Emotional upset, abnormal fatigue, disturbed respiration.

    6-10% Oxygen - Nausea and vomiting, collapse or loss of consciousness.

    Below 6% - Convulsive movements, complete respiratory failure and death.

    Rescuers should NOT attempt to retrieve victims of methane exposure without adequate personal protective equipment.
    At a minimum, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus and Fire-Retardant Personal Protective equipment must be worn.

    Adequate fire protection must be provided during methane exposure rescue situations where the combustion ratio is possible. Remove victims to fresh air as quickly as possible. Trained personnel should administer cardiopulmonary resuscitation or supplemental oxygen, if needed.

    Methane build up presents serious health-and-safety hazards that must NOT be ignored.

    In Emerald Eco-City, we are very concerned about “What To Do With Poo”

    All animals and plants release methane as they live, and when they die.
    Inedible portions of plants and animals will be recycled, along with our sewage.
    We have admirable Zero Emissions, and Zero Negative Impact goals.
    We do NOT want our compost or sewage treatment to release harmful methane.

    How will we deal with the CH4 methane that we continually generate every day?
    One of the worst possible things would be to exhaust it into the atmosphere, as most do today.

    We could recover CH4 and burn it for energy. The CO2 that would be emitted would have far less Global Warming Potential than methane does, BUT it would violate our important Emerald Green Gold Standard of NEVER BURN ANYTHING.

    CH4 (natural gas) is a potentially-valuable feedstock for making many things, such as fertilizer, chemical feedstock for plastics (plastics from poo) , and H2 pure hydrogen generation from CH4, for use in super-clean electrical fuel cells to
    produce electricity when the sun is not shining and the wind is not blowing (and some laboratory-quality pure H2O).

    If we extract H2 from CH4, the pure carbon left over could be used as: graphite (powered lubricant and electrodes for 3,000 degree F melting of metals like steel), carbon fiber reinforcement for light-weight, strong aerospace parts (including our Emerald Blimps), stronger-than-steel concrete reinforcement, industrial diamonds (and gemstones), semiconductor substrates, and near-future carbon nano-materials like: reverse-osmosis water filters, C60 “Bucky Balls” (used in low-cost plastic photovoltaic and color-LED devices), nanotubes (high-energy batteries and Space Elevator cables), building-construction materials, nanopaper and graphene: video displays, aerospace components, color-changing temperature-changing clothing, etc.

    We will enthusiastically support and demonstrate leading-edge carbon nano technology R&D from methane that we produce. Are YOU interested? Should your children be?

    There is off-the-shelf technology working today. We expect significant cost-effective breakthroughs in all of these areas by the time we are ready to occupy Emerald Eco-City. We will closely monitor and support the research into recovery and productive use of CH4, WITHOUT BURNING IT. We hope to become among the world leaders in large-scale demonstrations of practical state-of-the-art non-burning methane usage, in our self-contained, hermetically-sealed operating mode. Methane monitors will continually ensure the safety of our entire Emerald Eco-City.

    "If you choose the quick and easy path as Vader did, you will become an agent of evil." - Yoda

    "Dark and difficult times lie ahead. Soon we must all face the choice between what is right and what is easy." - Dumbledore

    We sincerely wish all of our readers an Abundant New Life In Harmony With Nature

    Lifelong Learning In An Ever-Expanding Universe Of Endless Possibilities TM

    We invite constructive suggestions and collaboration from our new friends
    E-Mail To:   ZEDmaster@ZeroEnergyDesign.com